Participatory Governance in Ukraine: A Case Study of Anti-corruption Policy in the Period 2014–2018
Keywords:civil society, participatory governance, anti-corruption, public policy, Ukraine
AbstractThe 2013-2014 Euromaidan Revolution, which culminated in the fall of the authoritarian and notoriously corrupt regime of President Victor Yanukovych has become a symbol of the triumph of civic activism in Ukraine. Although those events have attracted significant scholarly attention, the question whether the Ukrainian civil society’s capacity for protest mobilization has successfully been channeled into sustained, formalized and productive forms of civic participation in the process of public policy making has remained largely unaddressed. Therefore, this paper sets out to examine whether civil society organizations (CSOs) have become more integrated into the Ukrainian public policy making process since the Euromaidan and whether the Revolution has led to a meaningful shift towards a more open and inclusive style of governance. Drawing on legal texts, external reports and semi-structured interviews with Kyiv-based anti-corruption activists, the study finds both a clear trend towards increased openness of the policy making process to CSO input in the immediate aftermath of the Revolution as well as the insufficient consolidation and institutionalization of such participatory mechanisms, which ultimately makes them vulnerable to the preferences of individual players and to broader changes in political attitudes.
Ash, T., J. Gunn, J. Lough, O. Lutsevych, J. Nixey, J. Sherr and K. Wolczuk. “The Struggle for Ukraine. Chatham House Report.” Chatham House. London, 2017.
Bellamy, Richard, and Antonino Palumbo, eds. From Government to Governance. The Library of Contemporary Essays in Political Theory and Public Policy. Farnham, Surrey, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate Pub. Co, 2010.
Bhargva, V. “Engaging Citizens and Civil Society to Promote Good Governance and Development Effectiveness.” The Governance Brief, 25, 2015.
Bhargva, V. “Strategies for Empowering Communities to Demand Good Governance and Seek Increased Effectiveness of Public Service.” Partnership for Transparency Fund Working Papers Series No. 4, 2012.
Bonnafous-Boucher, M. “From Government to Governance.” Ethical Perspectives, no. 4 (2005): 521–34.
Bozzini, E. and S. Fella. “The Role of Civil Society in Immigration Policy Making in Italy: Changing Patterns of Conflictual Cooperation.” Policy & Politics 36, no. 2 (April 1, 2008): 245–59.
Burlyuk, O., N. Shapovalova, and K. Zarembo. “Introduction to the Special Issue Civil Society in Ukraine: Building on Euromaidan Legacy.” Kyiv-Mohyla Law and Politics Journal 3 (2017): 1–22.
Constitution of Ukraine. Konstytutsiya Ukrainy. 1996. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/254%D0%BA/96-%D0%B2%D1%80.
Coston, J. “A Model and Typology of Government-NGO Relationships.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 27 (1998): 358–82.
Council of Europe. “Guidelines for Civil Participation in Political Decision-Making. Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 27 September 2017 at the 1295th Meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies.” Council of Europe, 2017. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://rm.coe.int/guidelines-for-civil-participation-in-political-decision-making-en/16807626cf.
Council of Europe. “Strategic Priorities for Promoting Civil Participation in Decision-Making in Ukraine.” Council of Europe, 2014. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://rm.coe.int/16800cc3d5.
Council of Europe. “Ukraine: Handbook on Transparency and Citizen Participation.” Partnership for Good Governance, 2017. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://rm.coe.int/handbook-ukraine-eng/168078406c.
Džatková, V. “The Role of Civil Society in Public Governance.” Rocznik Administracji Publicznej 2 (2016): 373–83.
European External Action Service. “Code of Good Practice for Civil Participation in the Decision-Making Process. Adopted by the Conference of INGOs at Its Meeting on 1st October 2009.” EEAS, 2009. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://www.eesc.europa.eu/resources/docs/code-of-good-pratice-for-civil--participation-in-the-decision-making-process-en.pdf.
European External Action Service. “Ukraine – EU Country Roadmap for Engagement with Civil Society 2014-2017.” European External Action Service, 2014. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage_en/10421/Ukraine%20-%20EU%20Country%20Roadmap%20for%20engagement%20with%20Civil%20Society%202014-2017.
European Parliament. “Report and Roadmap on Internal Reform and Capacity-Building for the Vekhovna Rada of Ukraine.” European Parliament’s Needs Assessment Mission to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine led by Pat Cox, President of the European Parliament 2002-2004, 2017.
Evers, A. “Shift in the Welfare Mix: Introducing a New Approach for the Study of Transformations in Welfare and Social Policy.” In Shifts in the Welfare Mix, edited by A. Evers and H. Wintersberger, 7–29. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990.
Falsini, S. and S. Worschech. The Euromaidan’s Effect on Civil Society: Why and How Ukrainian Social Capital Increased after the Revolution of Dignity. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society, Vol. 182. Stuttgart.
Fioramonti, L. and F. Heinrich. “How Civil Society Influences Policy: A Comparative Analysis of the CIVICUS Civil Society Index in Post-Communist Europe.” Civicus World Alliance for Citizen Participation, 2007. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://www.civicus.org/view/media/CIVICUS.ODI.Fioramonti.Heinrich.pdf.
Ghaus-Pasha, A. “Role of Civil Society Organisations in Governance.” Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2004. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan019594.pdf.
Ghosh, M. “In Search of Sustainability: Civil Society in Ukraine.” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2014. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/id-moe/10862.pdf.
Giugni, M. and F. Passy. “Contentious politics in complex societies: new social movements between conflict and cooperation.” In From Contention to Democracy, edited by Giugni, M., D. McAdam, and C. Tilly, 81-107. Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1998.
Global Open Data Index. “Place Overview - Global Open Data Index.” Accessed May 3, 2020. https://index.okfn.org/place/.
Karl, M. "Participatory Policy Reform from a Sustainable Livelihoods Perspective: Review of Concepts and Practical Experiences". LSP Working Paper 3, Participation, Policy and Local Governance Sub-Programme. FAO, Rome, 2002. Accessed April 13, 2020. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/ad688e/ad688e03.htm.
Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group. “Civic Anger over Hijacked Public Councils,” 2013. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://khpg.org/en/index.php?id=1361579838.
Kobets, R. and O. Ruda. “Mapping Study: CSO Engagement in Policy Formulation and Monitoring of Policy Implementation.” EU Civil Society Dialogue for Progress, 2014. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://www.csdialogue.eu/sites/default/files/mapping_ukraine_1-3_0.pdf.
Krasynska, S. and E. Martin. “The Formality of Informal Civil Society: Ukraine’s EuroMaidan.” VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 28, no. 1 (February 1, 2017): 420–49.
Law of Ukraine. Pro dostup do publichnoyi informatsiyi [On Access to Public Information]. №2939-17. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2939-17.
Law of Ukraine. Pro vnesennya zmin do deyakih zakoniv Ukraini shodo dostupu do publichnoi informatsii u formi vidkritih danih [On Amendments to Some Laws of Ukraine on Access to Public Information in the Form of Open Data]. №319-19. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/319-19.
Law of Ukraine. Pro zabezpechennya uchasti gromadskosti u formuvanni ta realizatsii derzhavnoi polityky [On Ensuring Public Participation in Formation and Implementation of the State Policy]. №996. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/996-2010-%D0%BF.
Law of Ukraine. Pro zasadi derzhavnoi regulyarnoi politiki u sferi gospodars’koi diyalnosti [On the Principles of State Regulatory Policy in Economic Activity]. №1160-15. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1160-15.
Law of Ukraine. Pro zatveerdzhennya Poryadku spriyannya preovedennyu gromadskoi ekspertyzi diyal’nosti organiv vykonavchoi vlady [On Approval of the Procedure for Facilitating the Public Examination of the Activities of the Executive Bodies]. №976. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/976-2008-%D0%BF.
Law of Ukraine. Pro zvernennya gromadyan [On the Appeals of Citizens]. №393/96-ВР. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/393/96-%D0%B2%D1%80.
Lievens, M. “From Government to Governance. A Symbolic Mutation and Its Repercussions for Democracy.” Political Studies, 2015.
Lovitt, J. “Civil Participation in Decision Making in the Eastern Partnership Countries Part One: Laws and Policies.” Council of Europe, 2016.
Lovitt, J. “Civil Participation in Decision Making in the Eastern Partnership Countries Part Two: Practice and Implementation.” Council of Europe, 2016.
Marin, J. “Evidence of Citizen Engagement Impact in Promoting Good Governance and Anti-Corruption Efforts.” U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre. Transparency International/Chr. Michelsen Institute Bergen, 2016.
Ministry of Information Policy of Ukraine. The access to public information. Ministry of Information Policy of Ukraine Official Website. Accessed on May 3, 2020. https://mip.gov.ua/en/content/regulyatorna-politika.html.
Open Government Partnership. “Interim Report On Implementation of the Action Plan for Introduction of Open Government Partnership Initiative in 2016 – 2018.” Open Government Partnership, 2018. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://www.opengovpartnership.org/documents/ukraine-mid-term-self-assessment-report-2016-2018.
Pollard, A. and J. Court. “How Civil Society Organisations Use Evidence to Influence Policy Processes: A Literature Review. Working Paper 249.” Overseas Development Institute. 2005. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/164.pdf.
Rhodes, R. W. “The New Governance: Governing without Government.” Political Studies 44, no. 4 (1996): 652–67.
RTI Rating. “Ukraine: Global Right to Information Rating.” Accessed May 3, 2020. https://www.rti-rating.org/country-data/scoring/.
Sereda, V. “‘I Am a Man and an Active Citizen… I Did Not Betray My State!’” Revue Detudes Comparatives Est-Ouest no. 2 (2018): 93–130.
Shyrokykh, K. “The Euromaidan’s Effect on Civil Society. Why and How Ukrainian Social Capital Increased After the Revolution of Dignity.” Europe-Asia Studies 72, no. 2 (2020): 333–34.
Silpakar, S. 2012. “Policy Advocacy Strategies of Civil Society Organizations in Nepal. Policy Discussion Paper - 4/2012.” Alliance for Social Dialogue, 2012. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://asd.org.np/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/policy_advocacy_strategies_of_civil_society_organizations_in_nepal0.pdf.
Singh, R. “Civil Society and Policymaking in India: In Search of Democratic Spaces: A Case Study.” Oxfam India. Centre for Democratic and Social Action, 2014.
Smagliy, K. “Kennan Cable No. 25: A Wake-up Call for Ukraine’s Civil Society”. Wilson Center, Washington, DC. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/kennan-cable-no25-wake-call-for-ukraines-civilsociety.
Sushko, O. “Reforming Ukraine: Policymaking After the Euromaidan.” PonarsEuarasia - Policy Memos, December 18, 2015, 1. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://www.ponarseurasia.org/memo/reforming-ukraine-policymaking-after-euromaidan.
Sushko, O. and O. Prystayko. “Nations in Transit 2016 - Ukraine.” Freedom House, 2016, 7. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://freedomhouse.org/report/nations-transit/2016/ukraine.
Tătar, M. Importing Democracy from Abroad: International Assistance for Civil Society in Romania. Marius Ioan Tatar, 2006.
Umland, A. “Kyiv’s Leadership Is on Its Way to Reinvent Ukraine’s Patronalistic Regime.” Open Democracy Online, 2017. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://www.opendemocracy.net/od-russia/andreas-umland/kyiv-s-leadership-is-on-its-way-to-reinvent-ukraine-s-patronalistic-regime.
United Nations Development Program. “Newly Adopted Open Data Law Propels Ukraine into the Digital Age.” UNDP Ukraine, 2015. Accessed May 3, 2020. https://www.ua.undp.org/content/ukraine/en/home/presscenter/articles/2015/04/16/newly-adopted-open-data-law-propels-ukraine-into-the-digital-age.html.
USAID. “The 2015 CSO Sustainability Index for Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia.” United States Agency for International Development. Bureau for Europe and Eurasia, 2015, 250. Accessed December 12, 2020. https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1861/Europe_Eurasia_CSOSIReport_2015_Update8-29-16.pdf.
Vakulenko, V., N. Grynchuk, and H. Borshch. “Report on Public Administration Reform in Ukraine.” Network of Institutes and Schools of Public Administration in Central and Eastern Europe (NISPAcee), 2014.
Zaslavskyi, O. “Draft Concept Paper on the ‘End to End’ Legislative Process.” Agency for Legislative Initiatives, 2017. Accessed December 12, 2020. http://parlament.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/End-to-end_.pdf.
Copyright (c) 2020 Denitsa Marchevska
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Kyiv-Mohyla Law and Politics Journal provides free access to original research without restriction barriers (i.e. subscription fees, licensing fees etc.).
Unless otherwise indicated, content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license, which means you are free to:
distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially
...provided that any use is made with attribution to author(s) and Kyiv-Mohyla Law and Politics Journal.
The copyright in the article or any other submission to Kyiv-Mohyla Law and Politics Journal shall remain with the author(s).
The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions.